Change Request Management
Change Request (CR)
A formally submitted artifact that is used to track all stakeholder
requests (including new features, enhancement requests, defects, changed
requirements, etc.) along with related status information throughout the project
lifecycle. All change history will be maintained with the Change Request,
including all state changes along with dates and reasons for the change. This
information will be available for any repeat reviews and for final closing.
Change (or Configuration) Control Board (CCB) The
board that oversees the change process consisting of representatives from all
interested parties, including customers, developers, and users. In a small
project, a single team member, such as the project manager or software architect, may
play this role. In the Rational Unified Process, this is shown by the Change
Control Manager role.
CCB Review Meeting The function of
this meeting is to review Submitted Change Requests. An initial review of
the contents of the Change Request is done in the meeting to determine if it is
a valid request. If so, then a determination is made if the change is in or out
of scope for the current release(s), based on priority, schedule, resources,
level-of-effort, risk, severity and any other relevant criteria as determined by
the group. This meeting is typically held once per week. If the Change Request
volume increases substantially, or as the end of a release cycle approaches, the
meeting may be held as frequently as daily. Typical members of the CCB Review
Meeting are the Test Manager, Development Manager and a member of the Marketing
Department. Additional attendees may be deemed necessary by the members on an
"as needed" basis.
Change Request Submit Form This form is displayed when a Change
Request is being Submitted for the first time. Only the fields necessary
for the submitter to complete are displayed on the form.
Change Request Combined Form This form is displayed when you are
reviewing a Change Request that has already been submitted. It contains all the
fields necessary to describe the Change Request.
The general process associated with Change Requests is described in Activity:
Establish Change Control Process. However, the following outline of the
Change Request process describes the states and statuses of Change Requests
through their overall process, and who needs to be notified during the lifecycle
of the Change Request.
The following example shows sample activities that a project might adopt for
managing a Change Request (CR) throughout its lifecycle (click on items in the
diagram to view descriptions):
Sample Change Request Management (CRM) Process Activity Descriptions:
||Any stakeholder on the project can
submit a Change Request (CR). The Change Request is logged into the Change
Request Tracking System (e.g., Rational ClearQuest) and is placed into the CCB Review
Queue, by setting the Change Request State to Submitted.
||The function of this activity is to
review Submitted Change Requests. An initial review
of the contents of the Change Request is done in the CCB Review meeting to
determine if it is a valid request. If so, then a determination is made if
the change is in or out of scope for the current release(s), based on
priority, schedule, resources, level-of-effort, risk, severity and any other
relevant criteria as determined by the group.
Duplicate or Reject
||If a Change Request is suspected of
being a Duplicate or Rejected
as an invalid request (e.g., operator error, not reproducible, the way it
works, etc.), a delegate of the CCB is assigned to confirm the duplicate or
rejected Change Request and to gather more information from the submitter,
||If more information is needed (More
Info) to evaluate a Change Request, or if a Change Request is
rejected at any point in the process (e.g., confirmed as a Duplicate,
Rejected, etc.), the submitter is notified
and may update the Change Request with new information. The updated Change
Request is then re-submitted to the CCB Review Queue for consideration of
the new data.
& Schedule Work
||Once a Change Request is Opened,
the Project Manager will then assign the work to the appropriate team member
depending on the type of request (e.g., enhancement request, defect,
documentation change, test defect, etc.) and make any needed updates to
the project schedule.
||The assigned team member performs the set
of activities defined within the appropriate section of the process (e.g.,
requirements, analysis & design, implementation, produce user-support
materials, design test, etc.) to make the changes requested. These
activities will include all normal review and unit test activities as
described within the normal development process. The Change Request will
then be marked as Resolved.
||Assigned Team Member
Changes in Test Build
||After the changes are Resolved
by the assigned team member (analyst, developer, tester, tech writer, etc.), the
changes are placed into a test queue to be assigned to a tester and Verified
in a test build of the product.
Changes in Release Build
||Once the resolved changes have been
Verified in a test build of the product, the Change
Request is placed into a release queue to be verified against a release
build of the product, produce release notes, etc. and Close
the Change Request.
||CCB Delegate (System Integrator)
The following example diagram shows sample states and who should be notified
throughout the lifecycle of a Change Request (CR) [Click on items in the diagram
to view descriptions]:
Sample Change Request Management (CRM) State Descriptions:
||This state occurs as the result of
1) a new Change Request submission, 2) update of an existing Change Request
or 3) consideration of a Postponed Change Request
for a new release cycle. Change Request is placed in the CCB Review queue.
No owner assignment takes place as a result of this action.
||Change Request is determined to be
valid, but "out of scope" for the current release(s). Change
Requests in the Postponed state will be held and
reconsidered for future releases. A target release may be assigned to
indicate the timeframe in which the Change Request may be Submitted
to re-enter the CCB Review queue.
||A Change Request in this state is
believed to be a duplicate of another Change Request that has already been
submitted. Change Requests can be put into this state by the CCB Review
Admin or by the team member assigned to resolve it. When the Change Request is
placed into the Duplicate state, the Change Request
number it duplicates will be recorded (on the Attachments tab in
ClearQuest). A submitter should initially query the Change Request database
for duplicates of a Change Request before it is submitted. This will prevent
several steps of the review process and therefore save a lot of time.
Submitters of duplicate Change Requests should be added to the notification
list of the original Change Request for future notifications regarding
||A Change Request in this state is
determined by in the CCB Review Meeting or by the assigned team member to be an
invalid request or more information is needed from the submitter. If already
assigned (Open), the Change Request is removed from
the resolution queue and will be reviewed again. A designated authority of
the CCB is assigned to confirm. No action is required from the submitter
unless deemed necessary, in which case the Change Request state will be
changed to More Info. The Change Request will be
reviewed again in the CCB Review Meeting considering any new information. If
confirmed invalid, the Change Request will be Closed by the CCB and
the submitter notified.
||Insufficient data exists to confirm
the validity of a Reject or Duplicate
Change Request. The owner automatically gets changed to the submitter who is
notified to provide more data.
||A Change Request in this state has
been determined to be "in scope" for the current release and is
awaiting resolution. It has been slated for resolution before an upcoming
target milestone. It is defined as being in the "assignment
queue". The meeting members are the sole authority for opening a Change
Request into the resolution queue. If a Change Request of priority two or
higher is found, it should be brought to the immediate attention of the QE
or Development Manager. At that point they may decide to convene an
emergency CCB Review Meeting or simply open the Change Request into the
resolution queue instantly.
Change Request is then the responsibility of the Project Manager to Assign
Work based on the type of Change Request and update the schedule, if
||Signifies that the resolution of
this Change Request is complete and is now ready for verification. If the
submitter was a member of the QE Department, the owner automatically gets
changed to the submitting QE member; otherwise, it changes to the QE Manager
for manual re-assignment.
||A Change Request that fails testing
in either a test build or a release build will be placed in this state. The
owner automatically gets changed to the team member who resolved the Change
||A Change Request in this state has
been Verified in a test build and is ready to be
included in a release.
||Change Request no longer requires
attention. This is the final state a Change Request can be assigned. Only
the CCB Review Admin has the authority to close a Change Request. When a
Change Request is Closed, the submitter will receive
an email notification with the final disposition of the Change Request. A
Change Request may be Closed: 1) after its Verified
resolution is validated in a release build, 2) when its Reject
state is confirmed, or 3) when it is confirmed as a Duplicate of an
existing Change Request. In the latter case, the submitter will be informed
of the duplicate Change Request and will be added to that Change Request for
future notifications (see the definitions of states "Reject"
and "Duplicate" for more details). If
the submitter wishes to contest a closing, the Change Request must be
updated and re-Submitted for CCB review.
The state tags provide the basis for reporting Change Request (aging,
distribution or trend) statistics.
Change Request States in the context of the CM Cube.
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